Het is mogelijk dat het orimogelijk is om iets nieuwer enjuister te zeggen, maar over al het geschrevene daalt het stof der tijden neer, en ik peins daarom dat het goed is als er om de 10 jaar een andere een kruis trekt over al die oude dingen, en de wereld-van-vandaag opnieuw uitspreekt 1 met andere woorden. -Louis Paul Boon (1972) 1.1 THE PROBLEM The distribution of labor incomes is a problem with two aspects, each of which has received ample attention in the literature. The first aspect relates to the shape of the frequency distribution of individuals according to their (labor) incomes. Analytical contributions include the so-called stochastic theories of income disÂ tribution, such as Gibrat's law of proportionate effect, Champernowne's and Rutherford's Markov-chain models, and Pigou's puzzle. The question is, If abilÂ ities are normally distributed, why should the distribution of incomes deviate from this shape? This deviation is the basic fact that these theories explain: inÂ come distributions, whatever the time and place of observation, are positively skewed. 2 CHAPTER 1 The second aspect of the distribution of labor incomes is the problem of wage differentials: why do wages differ, why do all workers not earn the same wage? This question has been a standard problem ever since Adam Smith dealt with it.
The law of trade secrets is one of the most important areas of intellectual property, but by far the least harmonised internationally. Indeed, the protection of trade secrets was not mandated by any international treaty until the 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, which nonetheless left countries with significant latitude as to how they should implement such obligations. The wide variety of approaches to the protection of trade secrets internationally betrays the murky legal origins of such protection. Are they protected by civil actions, in the criminal courts or both? And from the point of view of the civil courts, is their protection effected under unfair competition law, as seen in many civil law countries, or is it based instead on some implied contract, fiduciary or other equitable obligation theory, as seen in common law countries? Edited by leading IP practitioner Trevor Cook from Bird & Bird, this important title demystifies the law of trade secrets in over 30 jurisdictions, covering substantive and procedural aspects of both criminal and civil law and exploring the final remedies available. Designed to provide clear, comprehensive and practical guidance, this is a powerful tool for anyone requiring a broader and fuller understanding of trade secret protection globally.
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